By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In 197 BC, on the hills of cynoscephalae. Flamininus, however, had kept his own right wing stationary and led his left uphill, driving back a group of Philip’s mercenaries. Antonyms for battle of Cynoscephalae. Opponents. On the other a rising empire from the west building a new order in the ancient world. Philip's influence within Greece was now forever broken and he was essentially confined thereafter within Macedonia itself. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Prelude: In 323 BC Following the death of Alexander The great. Philip fled, leaving 8,000 of his troops dead and 5,000 captured. Although the battle had left Philip at Rome’s mercy, Flamininus proposed generous terms—namely, that Philip should abandon all his dependencies outside Macedonia but should retain his throne. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 BCE between two powers of the Mediterranean but, more importantly, between two different types of military formations, the Greek phalanx versus the Roman maniple. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 BC between the armies of the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second Macedonian War. On one side the remnants of an old empire seeking to regain it's old glory. He was further required to reduce the size of his army, to give up all his decked ships except five, and to pay an indemnity Updates? battle of Cynoscephalae synonyms, battle of Cynoscephalae pronunciation, battle of Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. At the Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC), the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of Pherae in a battle in which Pelopidas was killed; nevertheless, the Thebans won. Thereupon Flamininus galloped over to the Roman right, which routed Nicanor’s wing while it was still in marching formation. Accounts of the campaign and the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC have in general two serious defects: they do not consider the problems of supply on both sides, and they make no attempt to match the topographical details of the ancient accounts with the presumed scene of the engagement. Hoping to capitalize on the gains he had made during the First Macedonian War (215–205 bce), a conflict he had waged against Roman client states while Rome was largely preoccupied with the Second Punic War, Philip moved against Rhodes and Pergamum, two kingdoms that were within the Roman sphere. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}39°22′N 22°50′E / 39.36°N 22.83°E / 39.36; 22.83, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Cynoscephalae_(364_BC)&oldid=998222756, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 10:49. When Philip turned southwest to cross Cynoscephalae toward Pharsalus, his advance force blundered in a mist into some Romans. Cynoscephalae, (Greek: “Dogs’ Heads”), ancient range of hills in Thessaly, Greece, 7 miles (11 km) west of modern Vólos.It was the site of the victory (197 bc) that ended the Second Macedonian War when the Romans under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeated Philip V of Macedon. Detaching 20 maniples (flexible units of 120 men) from the rear of the victorious Roman right wing, he led them against the flank and rear of the previously triumphant Macedonian right. Battle of Cynoscephalae summary. With each side victorious on one wing, the issue hung in the balance until an unknown Roman tribune seized the initiative. After skirmishing near Pherae on terrain that proved unsuitable, Philip, who needed supplies and level ground on which he could deploy his phalanx, marched westward along the northern slopes of some hills which ended in a low range called Cynoscephalae. The battle of Cynoscephalea of 197 B.C. In the process the day was lost for the Macedonians. In 204, the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy IV Philopator died, leaving behind a … Generals. Finally becoming consul in 198 BC, Flaminius was underage for the position. The Hellenic Alliance, which had fallen apart, was replaced by a series of leagues in former Macedonian areas. Still, the hilly Greek terrain at Cynoscephalae did favor the legion. Synonyms for battle of Cynoscephalae in Free Thesaurus. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Cynoscephalae (Greek Kynos kephalai, literally “dogs’ heads”), a range of hills in Thessaly (Greece), northwest of Thebes. It features in Rome: Total War as a historical battle. In an unexpected encounter, the more flexible Roman force drew out the Macedonian phalanx and used the terrain to break it up before closing to attack from the front and from both flanks. Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce ), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. Definition of battle of cynoscephalae in the Definitions.net dictionary. The war had been triggered by Philip V of Macedonia’s attempts to extend his kingdom into Asia Minor and the Aegean. Flamininus drew up his line along the south of the hills, while Philip advanced his centre and right wing over rough ground. Despite this, Philip resumed his march, and his troops became confused and disoriented due to heavy fog. The pilum. 2 armies fought over who would control Greece. At the Isthmian Games in 196, Flamininus declared that all Greek states which had been subject to Philip were free and independent of his rule. The delay of the Macedonian left wing, the roughness of the ground, and the timely action of a single Roman tribune had secured the victory that day, while the military reforms that Scipio Africanus had introduced to the legion would ensure the superiority of the Roman maniple over the Macedonian phalanx in encounters to come. The battle of Cynoscephalae was a turning point in military history. When morning came on the day of the battle there was a heavy fog, and neither army knew where the other army was. The Battle of Cynoscephalae is a battle that took place in 197 BC. [1][2][3] The next year, the Theban general Epaminondas avenged Pelopidas' death by a victory over Alexander. What are synonyms for Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC)? Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Cynoscephalae, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Battle of Cynoscephalae. After that he slowly ascended the cursus honorum. The Hellenistic kingdoms targeted by Rome. Battle of Cynoscephalae.webm 20 s, 1,156 × 810; 2.52 MB Bitwa pod Kynoskefalaj (197 pne)-1 faza.png 275 × 281; 21 KB Bitwa pod Kynoskefalaj (197 pne)-2 faza.png 296 × 281; 20 KB What are synonyms for battle of Cynoscephalae? The battle on the hills grew fierc… It was also the first clash of two rival military systems: the Greek spear phalanx and the Roman sword legion. Above all, the old balance of power was upset and Rome became the decisive power in…. Battle of Cynoscephalae: decisive battle during the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE), in which the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus overcame the Macedonian king Philip V. Philip V of Macedon. Conduct of the war was allocated to Flamininus, who had been elected consul in 198. Unable to wait for Nicanor, Philip launched his main phalanx force at the Roman left, which yielded ground in good order. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Philip’s force was of roughly the same size, and it included some 16,000 heavy infantry fighting in phalanx formation. For three days Flamininus marched along the southern slopes, but out of touch with the enemy. The next year, the Theban general Epaminondas avenged Pelopidas' death by a victory over Alexander. Philip’s lieutenant Nicanor was to follow with the Macedonian left wing as soon as possible. The Legion and the Phalanx. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was part of the Second Macedonian War, which began in 200 BCE. The Roman army under Flamininus numbered 26,000 men, of whom about 8,000 were Greeks. The Battle of Cynoscephalae, fought in 197 B.C., ended the second of Rome’s four Macedonian Wars, securing a place in history for the Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, checking the power of the Antigonid King Philip V, and imposing a brutal peace that laid the groundwork for the Third Macedonian War against Philip’s son Perseus. Both armies attacked and were attacked in detail. was the decisive battle of the First Macedonian War, and was the first of a series of victories won by Roman legions over the Greek phalanx that ended three centuries of Greek dominance on the battlefield.. battle of Cynoscephalae: 1 n the battle that ended the second Macedonian War (197 BC); the Romans defeated Philip V who lost his control of Greece Synonyms: Cynoscephalae Example of: pitched battle a fierce battle fought in close combat between troops in predetermined positions at a … Philip's army was marching along the top of the hills when his scouts engaged the Roman skirmishers by … Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC) The Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 BC, settled once and for all the age-old dispute of phalanx versus legionary warfare. A messy encounter battle then developed unexpectedly at Cynoscephalae when Macedonian and Roman detachments clashed in the mist on the heights overlooking a pass between the main armies. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. Contents 1 Prelude Philip then sent a small force to take the Cynoscephalae hills (coordinates: 39º25'N, 22º34'E). …strength, and his defeat at Cynoscephalae (197) led to a peace that confined him to Macedonia. 1 synonym for battle of Cynoscephalae: Cynoscephalae. The two armies were marching on opposite sides of a ridgeline and met unexpectedly in the early morning mist. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Synonyms for Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC) in Free Thesaurus. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. At the battle of Cynoscephalae, known, in military terms, as the "encounter battle", the legions of Flamininus attack the phalanx of Philip V, while they are still in the deployment phase, routing them. The battle would be won by the superior tactical system, not weight of numbers. Information and translations of battle of cynoscephalae in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. The two armies met at Cynoscephalae, a series of hills in northern Greece. Antonyms for Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC). You take the role of the Roman army as it moves to defeat the Macedonian army of King Philip V of Macedon. Flamininus, still unaware of Philip's location, sent out some cavalry and light infantry to reconnoiter, which engaged Philip's troops on the hills. Meaning of battle of cynoscephalae. Flamininus arrived in Greece later that year, and he promptly secured the support of the Achaean League against Philip. As more units were drawn into the fight for the high ground, a general engagement began. Define battle of Cynoscephalae. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. In the actual charge the sarissa proved once again all-powerful, but the legionary organization being the more flexible enabled a clear-sighted sub ordinate quickly to break off a small party of men and manoeuvre towards the decisive point—the rear of the victorious Macedonian right. The Battle of Cynoscephalae by pallin. Cynoscephalae was the first battle in the campaign of Roman imperialism against Macedonia and the eastern Mediterranean. The Macedonian right reached the top of the pass before the Romans. The Rhodians inflicted a crushing defeat on Philip’s navy at the Battle of Chios in 201—Polybius reported that the Macedonians lost roughly half their fleet and some 12,000 men—and envoys from Rhodes and Pergamum convinced Rome to declare war on Philip in 200. What does battle of cynoscephalae mean? Born in 228 BC, he had been a military tribune in the Second Punic War. Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. of 1,000 talents. Tactically the battle of Cynoscephalae is an interesting one. The combat engaged about 26,000 men on each side. At Cynoscephalae the Macedonian's and their Greek allies suffered 10,000 dead and 5,000 taken prisoner compared to 5,000 Roman casualties. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. 1 synonym for battle of Cynoscephalae: Cynoscephalae. Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus entered Macedon with his two Senate-provided legions to confront and dethrone King Philip V in the Second Macedonian War. The general on the Roman side was Titus Quinctius Flaminius. Corrections? A fluctuating skirmish developed into a pitched battle that would mark one of the first times that the Macedonian phalanx and the Roman legion—arguably the two most-effective fighting formations in the ancient world—would meet in open combat. Omissions? The Romans were stronger than the Macedonians in cavalry and also fielded some war elephants. 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