OKlibrary  0.2.1.6
AssociativeBlockDesigns.hpp File Reference

Plans related to unsatisfiable hitting clause-sets which are uniform and variable-regular. More...

Go to the source code of this file.

## Detailed Description

Plans related to unsatisfiable hitting clause-sets which are uniform and variable-regular.

Todo:
Organisation
• This topic deserves its own sub-module.
Todo:
Generators for unsatisfiable uniform and variable-regular hitting clause-sets
• There is the important question for what k,r,n we have F with uuhittingcsp(F) which are k-uniform and r-variable-regular.
1. sasg2000 is an example for k=3,r=6,n=4.
2. Ignoring r (i.e., admitting an arbitrary r) we arrive exactly at the notion of an "associative block design" (ABD).
3. We are allowed to do so since r = 2^k * k / n.
4. Apparently ABD's are denoted as "ABD(n,k)").
5. The problem in [Savicky, Sgall, 2000, DNF tautologies with a limited number of occurrences of every variable] is, as stated about arbitrary uniform unsatisfiable hitting clause-sets and how low a maximal variable-degree can be achieved. However their examples achieve actually variable-regularity (and also literal-regularity); so we can pose a hierarchy of questions for bounds on the maximal variable- and literal-degree (how low is possible):
1. For arbitrary k-uniform clause-sets: This should be the Tovey-problem studied in [Hoory, Szeider, 2006], and apparently these considerations belong to another module (where those constructions should be implemented).
2. Considering only hitting clause-sets: see ComputerAlgebra/Satisfiability/Lisp/ConflictCombinatorics/plans/HittingClauseSets.hpp.
3. And then we have the requirements of variable-regularity (ABD's), and literal-regularity.
4. By Theorem 9.7 in [Lint, Wilson, a Course in Combinatorics, 2nd ed.] actually variable-regularity here already implies literal-regularity.
6. In order to improve the bound from [Savicky, Sgall] we do not require variable-regularity, but if we do so, then we are asking for k, n with log_k(n) > log_3(4).
7. An ABD(8,5) exists which improves the bound.
8. To establish s_k = Theta(2^k / k) for the function s_k introduced by [Kratochvil, Savicky, Tuza, 1993] for the Tovey-problem, which is best possible, we needed to find an example with n = k^2.
9. This seems very demanding --- perhaps it is essential to give up variable-regularity and hittingness for s_k. But we need to search the literature!
• Constructions:
1. The construction from Lemma 3 in [Savicky, Sgall, 2000], which from uniform unsatisfiable hitting clause-sets F,F' of rank k,k' construct a uniform unsatisfiable hitting clause-set of rank k * k'.
2. This construction should be the same as in [Lint, Wilson], Lemma 9.9, and thus should transfer variable-uniformity.
3. There are two other constructions in [Lint, Wilson], Theorem 9.10, and Theorem 9.11, which need to be implemented.
1. We have already sasg2000, an ABD(4,3).
2. We should determine all ABD(4,3)'s.
3. Another sporadic case is ABD(8,5).
4. Again, the question to get "all".
5. Are there more sporadic examples?
• Sequences
1. The general constructions, applied to the sporadic examples, yield sequences, for which at least for the "prominent cases" we should provide convenience functions.
2. So Theorem 4 in [Savicky, Sgall] applies the product-construction to sasg2000.
Todo:
Searching for ABD(n,k) (via SAT)
• Most natural seems the clause-based approach:
1. For each of the 2^k clauses we have a variable, with domain all binomial(n,k) * 2^k clauses.
2. We have one injectivity condition over all variables (an active clause).
3. We have one condition stating that all assigned clauses clash pairwise.
• Unclear whether this yields an active clause.
• The underlying general problem is for a hitting clause-set to find a satisfying partial assignment of minimal size --- unclear whether this can be done in polynomial time.
4. And for each variable we have the condition that it occurs in exactly 2^k * k / n clauses; this should yield (n) active clauses.
5. Stronger, instead just requiring variable-regularity, we should better require literal-regularity. And there are other conditions as well.
6. Finally, symmetry-breaking can be established by choosing a linear order on all clauses (for example lexicographical) and also order the variables, and by demanding that the first variable gets the smallest clause and that the order is variable-values is strictly ascending. Are there suitable orderings, so that this becomes an active clause?? Perhaps we shouldn't demand strict ascending, since this is already covered by the injectivity constraint.
• Alternatively, we use the active clause-set for hitting clause-sets as in "Hitting clause-sets" in ComputerAlgebra/Satisfiability/Lisp/ConstraintProblems/plans/Generators.hpp, and add active clauses for the literal- and variable-regularity.
• Apparently the smallest open case is to find an ABD(12,6) (or to determine that it doesn't exist). An easier test case should be ABD(8,5) (here there are solutions; perhaps we can determine them all?).
• Regarding the quality-measure mu(n,k) = log_k(n) (the more the better) we have mu(4,3) < mu(8,5) < mu(12,6).
• See ComputerAlgebra/Graphs/Lisp/BicliquePartitions/plans/Transformations.hpp for the biclique approach:
1. Variable- and literal-regularity as well as uniformity is easy to capture, however one also needs to know the conflict matrix.
2. So we need to know properties of the conflict matrix (see below). Then one could search through (or sample) the space of possible conflict matrices.
3. For already given ABDs, i.e., we know already some conflict matrix, we can search for other (non-isomorphic) instances (with the same conflict matrix).
Todo:
Rules for ABD(n,k)
• Implement `abd_exists(n,k)` which returns "true", "false" or "unknown".
• For that we should use Maxima's ability to use rules.
Todo:
Properties of ABDs
• sasg2000 allows 2-subsumption resolution, and the apparently unique result (up to isomorphism) is the unsatisfiable hitting clause-set of deficiency 2 with 3 variables (musatd2_fcs(3)).
• brouwer1999 allows 2-subsumption resolution.
1. Reducing it w.r.t. 2-subsumption-resolution, but without creating singular variables, we obtain quite a few clause-sets
```all_derived_hitting_cs_nsing_isoelim(brouwer1999[2],d_brouwer);
analyse_isorepo_def(d_brouwer);
[[13,12],[14,72],[15,208],[16,398],[17,566],[18,633],[19,529],[20,333],[21,142],[22,43],[23,7],[24,1]]
```
however none of them is reduced w.r.t. 2-subsumption resolution.
2. We should repeat this experiment with the proper version of all_derived_hitting_cs_isoelim (to get all derived clause-sets).
3. One more step is possible, creating a singular variable, and then one further step yields an instance reduced w.r.t 2-subsumption resolution, and also without singular variables, but with 7 variables:
```rbrouwer1999 : redtsr(brouwer1999[2]);
{{-8,-7,-6,-4,3},{-8,-7,-3},{-8,-7,-2,3,4},{-8,-4,-3,6,7},{-8,-4,-2,3,6},{-8,-3,2,4,7},
{-8,-2,4,6,7},{-7,-6,-4,2,8},{-7,-6,-2,5,8},{-7,-5,-2,8},{-6,-4,7},{-6,-3,2,4,8},
{-6,-2,4,7},{-5,-3,2,6,8},{-5,-2,6,7,8},{-4,2,3,6},{-3,5,6,8},{-2,3,5,6,8},{2,3,4}}
nonsingular_csp(rbrouwer1999);
true
redtsrp(rbrouwer1999);
true
```
4. It seems that rbrouwer1999 is unique up to isomorphism. If this is the case then rbrouwer1999 needs to be inspected carefully!
5. A little experiment to get another derivation:
```r_brouwer1999 : rename_fcs(brouwer1999,[8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1]);
rrbrouwer1999 : redtsr(r_brouwer1999[2]);
{{-7,-5,-1,3,6},{-7,-4,-2,1},{-7,-4,1,2,3},{-7,-3,-2,1,4},{-7,-3,2,5},{-7,-2,-1,5,6},
{-7,-1,2,3,5},{-7,1,3,4,6},{-6,-5,-1,2,3},{-6,-4,1,3,7},{-6,-3,1,5,7},{-6,-2,-1},
{-6,-1,2,5,7},{-6,1,3,4},{-5,-3,-2,-1,6},{-5,-3,-2,1,7},{-5,-3,2},{-5,3,6,7},{5,6,7}}
is_isomorphic_btr_cs(rrbrouwer1999,rbrouwer1999);
true
```
(Remark: this clause-set has now actually been used to define rbrouwer).
6. Also rbrouwer1999 is eigenscharp.
7. It doesn't seem to fulfill any regularity conditions (neither literal- nor variable-regular nor uniform).
8. Also the conflict matrix now allows various linesums.
• The min-var-degree is not as high as possible (examples?).
• Applying partial assignments we obtain from brouwer1999 quite a lot of non-isomorphic clause-sets.
• One needs to find out about the symmetries of brouwer1999.
• The conflict matrix:
1. brouwer1999 and sasg2000 allow for all number of conflicts (between 1 and 5, resp. between 1 and 3).
2. sasg2000 is line-regular with line-sum 9, while brouwer2000 is line-regular with line-sum 50.
3. The conflict matrix of an ABD(n,k) is always linesum-regular with linesum r = S / 2^k, where S is the total sum of entries of the conflict matrix, which is S = 2 * n * d^2, where d is the literal degree d = 2^k * k / (2n). This makes r = 2 n * (2^k * k / (2n))^2 / 2^k = 2 n * 2^k * k^2 / (4 n^2) = 2^k * k^2 / (2 n).
4. This follows simply from the literatur regularity together with the uniformity: Every clause has k variables, each creates 2^k * k / (2n) conflicts.
5. This implies the condition 2n | 2^k k^2 on the existence of an ABD(n,k), i.e., n | 2^(k-1) * k^2. But that the literal degree d = 2^k * k / (2n) is a natural number already implies the stronger condition n | 2^(k-1) * k.
6. sasg2000 and brouwer1999 are eigensharp (i.e., hermitian_rank_cs(brouwer1999[2]) = nvar_fcs(brouwer1999)).
1. So one can conjecture that every ABD is eigenscharp.
2. We should prove that the known constructions for ABDs (from given ones) preserve eigensharpness.
• The clause-intersection matrix cl_int_scom_cs:
1. Doesn't look regular.
• The clause-var-intersection matrix cl_varint_scom_cs
1. Doesn't look regular.
• The variable-intersection matrix var_int_scom_fcs:
1. This is a diagonal matrix with the (constant) variable degree on the diagonal.
2. This should be known.

Definition in file AssociativeBlockDesigns.hpp.